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ポレポレ

ポレポレ例題28(神戸大学) The aggressive part of human nature

例題28 神戸大学

 

The aggressive part of human nature is not only a necessary safeguard against savage attack.  It is also the basis of intellectual achievement, of the attainment of independence, and even of that proper pride which enables a man to hold his head high amongst his fellows.  Without the aggressive, active side of his nature, man would be even less able than he is to direct the course of his life or to influence the world around him.

 

第一文の解説

The aggressive part of human nature is not only a necessary safeguard against savage attack.

 

 

Point

not only (but also) の呼応表現に気づく

前置詞againstのイメージ

run against the wind 風に逆らって走る

I hit my head against the telephone pole.

she is leaning against the wall.

I am against you. You are against the law.

 

訳例

人間の性質の攻撃的な部分は、野蛮な攻撃に対する必要な安全装置だけではない。

 

第二文の解説

It is also the basis of intellectual achievement, of the attainment of independence, and (even) of that proper pride which enables a man to hold his head high amongst his fellows.

 

 

ポイント1 and が何を連結しているのか?

ポイント2

achievement

何かを成し遂げる行為⇒不可算

成し遂げた後の結果⇒可算 業績

attainment 不可算 達成行為 可算 (努力して手に入れた)学識・技能  achievement<< attainment

ポイント3 先行詞明示のthat

 

 

訳例

それは、知的に物事を達成する基本であり、独立を努力して成し遂げる基本であり、人が仲間の間で毅然とすることを可能にする適切な自尊心の基本でさえある。

 

第三文の解説

(Without the aggressive, active side of his nature), man would be (even) less able (than he is) to direct the course of his life or to influence the world around him.

 

 

ポイント1 副詞は(  )でくくろう

ポイント2 or の連結しているもの

ポイント3 仮定法

Without A, man would be less able to ~than he is (able〜) Aがなかったら、人は~できないであろう〜現実の彼が出来ることよりも

 

 

訳例

このヒトの性質の攻撃的積極的側面がなかったならば、ヒトは自分の人生の道をしっかりと決めたり周りに影響を及ぼすというようなことが今ほどにはできないであろう。

ポレポレ例題30 上智短大 i have always wondered at

例題30 上智短大

I have always wondered at the passion many people have to meet the celebrated.  The prestige you acquire by being able to tell your friends that you know famous men proves only that you are yourself of small account.

 

第一文の分析

I have always wondered at the passion <many people have>< to meet the celebrated.>

注意!! 同格のthat をとれる名詞は限られている!!

  • factなど②newsなど③remarkなど④ideaなど⑤orderなど⑥feelingなど

Point1 不定詞の同格用法 ~という〜 (名詞的用法の一部)

I have always wondered that many people have the passion to meet the celeblated. 会いたいという情熱

Being parents is possibility of producing the greatest happiness that life has to offer.

Life has the greatest happiness to offer.  提供する最大の幸福

訳例

私は、多くの人が持っている有名人に会いたいという情熱に対していつも不思議に思っている。

 

第二文の分析

SThe prestige< 関省you acquire by being able to tell your friends that you know famous men>V proves (only)O that you are yourself of small account.

POINT you=一般論の主語 of small account =取りに足らない・つまらない

訳例

有名な人を知っていると友人に言えることによって獲得する名声というのは、たんに自分自身が取るに足らない人間であることを証明するだけなのである。

ポレポレ例題29 日本大学 the sheer numbers of

例題29 日本大学

The sheer numbers of Europeans who left their homelands in the century before 1914 to go overseas suggest how important was the movement of which they were a part.

 

分の分析

SThe sheer numbers (Mof Europeans who left their homelands in the century before 1914 to go overseas) Vsuggest Ohow important was the movement of which they were a part.

 

sheer  限定用法 まったくの・本当の (a small book)

限定用法だけ many few  叙述用法だけ alike alive

意味が異なる late (her late husband/she is late)

副詞 動詞 名詞

POINT1

How は名詞節を作る

I don’t know [how Ken went to the station yesterday].

I know how busy he is.

POINT2

倒置 主語が長いと倒置されるときがある

how important the movement of which they were a part was.

 

 

訳例

1914年以前の1世紀、海外に行くために祖国を離れたヨーロッパ人の純然たる数が,その人達が一部とするその大移動が,いかに重要であったかということを示している。

ポレポレ例題26 早稲田大学 there is general apathy to if not

例題26 早稲田大学
There is general apathy to if not positive distrust of science itself as a search for truth; for, to the ordinary American, science is identified with mechanical inventions. Ask an American to name the greatest scientist of this country and he will very likely reply, “Edison”. As a nation, we respect only the practical application of science and have regard for the efforts of inventors and promoters rather than those of the scientific discoverers.

第一文の解説
There is general apathy (形句to (副句if not positive distrust of science itself)( 形句as a search for truth); for, (to the ordinary American), science is identified with mechanical inventions.

There is general apathy to science itself
as a search for truth
if not positive distrust of science itself

if not = ~といっては言い過ぎかもしれないが・とはいかなくても
Arashi has also become famous in Japan, if not the world.
The internet is valuable if not vital for doing research

心理追求としての科学それ自身への積極的不信感といっては言い過ぎかもしれないが、科学への一般的な無関心が存在します。というのも、普通のアメリカ人にとっては、科学は、機械の発明と同一視されているからです。

第二文の解説
Ask an American to name the greatest scientist of this country and he will very likely reply, “Edison”.

name 他動詞 ①〜を名づける②〜の名前を言う
*name A after B BにちなんでAと名付ける
How many members can you name who belong to AKB?
He named his son SHIGEO after Mr.GIANTS.

very likely ⇔ very unlikely
It’s very unlikely that team is going to win.

アメリカ人に、アメリカの最も偉大な科学者の名前を上げるように求めると、かなり高い確率でエジソンと答えるだろう。

As a nation, we respect only the practical application of science and have regard for the efforts of inventors and promoters rather than those of the scientific discoverers.

application=適用・応用・申し込み・出願・申込書
regard=動 〜とみなす (感情を持って)~を見る
       名 心遣い・配慮・考慮すべき点・尊重

国民として、我々は科学の実用的適用だけを重視し、科学的発見の努力よりもむしろ、発明者や推進者の努力を尊重している。

ポレポレ解説 例題27 大阪外語大学(大阪大) Today, we do not expect our children to work

例題26 大阪外語大 (大阪大)
Today, we do not expect our children to work, either at home or in a factory. They contribute nothing to the economic well-being of the family. They are freer than they have ever been before simply to be children. We see them as the centre of the family, around which the rest of life revolves; we protect them from responsibilities which were forced on earlier generations.

第一文の分析
Today, we do not expect our children to work, either at home or in a factory.
第二文の分析
They contribute nothing to the economic well-being of the family.

第三文の分析
They are freer ( simply) to be children.

ポイント1 挿入の例外 カンマなしの挿入
You should  ,if you can ,eat vegetables.
You should (if you can)eat vegetables.
You should ―if you can ―eat vegetables.
You should if you can eat vegetables.
ポイント2 than+ever been before の表現 今まで以上
And at the same time, immigration is higher than it’s ever been before.
Self-study is more possible now than it’s ever been before.

第4文の分析
We see them as the centre of the family,<○関○非 around which the rest of life revolves>; we protect them from responsibilities which were forced on earlier generations.

ポイント3 around=はっきりした〇のイメージ 輪のイメージ
around the clock = 一日中

ポイント4
非制限用法の関係代名詞 接続詞は文脈で補う
① 順接 ②逆説 ③原因・理由
We see them as the centre of the family and the rest of life revolves around it (=the centre of the family).

訳例
今日、私たちは家であれ工場であれ、子供たちが働くことを期待してはいない。子供たちは家族が経済的に良くなることに対して貢献しません。以前よりも、子供たちは単に子供でいることができます。私たちは、子供たちを家族の中心であるとみなし、人生の残りは其れを軸として回っています。私たちは、先人たちに押し付けられた責任から子供たちを守っているのだ。

ポレポレ例題25 早稲田大学 by reason of the fact that educated english

例題25 早稲田大学
By reason of the fact that educated English is thus accorded implicit social and political sanction, it comes to be referred to as Standard English, and provided we remember that this does not mean an English that has been formally standardized by official action, as weights and measures are standardized, the term is useful and appropriate.

文構造の解析
(By reason of the fact)<○同 that educated English is (thus) accorded implicit social and political sanction>,

ポイント1 能動態に戻してみる 現在はsvo 受け身なのに!
ポイント2 授与動詞の基本=人に何かを与える
       accord(自動詞)一致する・調和する
       Your words and actions do not accord.
That is not accord with what you said.   
People accord educated English implicit social and political sanction.
??? ポイント2を発動して訳してみる
accord A B 人に(許可など)を与える giveが一般的

語句
sanction 不可算=認可 可算=制裁 通例複数形 
social sanctions = 社会的制裁

it comes to be referred to (as Standard English),

ポイント3 refer to A as B=AのことをBと呼ぶ
その受身形 A is referred to as B =AはBと呼ばれる

And< provided (that省略)we remember <○名that this does not mean an English <○関that has been formally standardized by official action>>, as weights and measures are standardized, the term is useful and appropriate.

provided (=providing) that=if

訳例
教育された英語はこのように暗黙の社会的、政治的な認可を与えられているという理由により、標準英語と呼ばれるようになってきている。教育された英語は、度量衡が標準化されているようには、公式な活動により正式に標準化されていることを意味しないことを私たちが忘れなければ、この用語は有効であり、適切である。

ポレポレ例題24 大阪大学 The social experiences and values of the old

例題24 大阪大学

The social experiences and values of the old and the young have always been in conflict; if younger people did not question the advice and beliefs of their parents, little change of ‘progress’ would ever occur.  But with the accelerating speed of change in modern times, the conflicts between members of different generations, or between those people anxious to adjust to change and those less inclined to do so, were in danger of becoming more harmful than helpful. Furthermore, the very phrase by which these conflicts are described, the ‘generation gap’, was becoming out of date.

 

文構造解説

第一文

The social experiences and values (of the old and the young) have always been in conflict; if younger people did not question the advice and beliefs (of their parents), little change (of ‘progress’) would (ever) occur.

Point1 and が何と何を結ぶかは必ず意識する

第二文

But (with the accelerating speed of change in modern times), the conflicts between members of different generations, or between those people anxious to adjust to change and those less inclined to do so, were (in danger)( of becoming more harmful than helpful).

Point2 or

Genes are made of DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid. (遺伝子はDNA,つまりデオキシリボ核酸でできている)

He wants a yellow or black car.

He wants a banana-colored car or yellow car.

 

Point3 those people who are は who are /people who are 省略可能

Point4

be anxious to do ~することを切望している =be eager to do

I am anxious to see her as soon as possible.

be anxious for 名詞
I’m anxious for peace.

be anxious about 〜を心配している

I’m anxious about my health.

第3文

Furthermore, the very phrase< by which these conflicts are described>, the ‘generation gap’, was becoming out of date.

Point5  very+名詞 まさにその

Point6 カンマ・カンマではさまれたのが名詞句なら同格

 

訳例

老人と若者の社会的経験と価値観は常に対立してきた。もしも、若者が両親の助言や信念に疑問を持たないのなら、進歩につながる変化というものは、まず生じないであろう。しかし、現代における加速度的な変化に伴い、異なる世代間の、すなわち変化に対応しようとする人とほとんど変化に対応しない人たちのあいだの軋轢は有用であるよりもむしろ害があるものになった。さらに、こういう対立を表現する、ジェネレーションギャップという言葉そのものが時代遅れになりつつあった。

ポレポレ例題23 同志社大学 In the world of nature there are

例題23 同志社大学

In the world of nature there are always compensations. As a country lad, I became familiar at an early age with the farming maxim that “there is never a year when every crop succeeds, nor when every crop fails.” In recent years a farming elite and its advisers have started to assume otherwise. They have been convincing themselves that if they prepare their plans according to the latest scientific knowledge and put them efficiently into practice, success is assured.

 

(In the world of nature )there are always compensations.( As a country lad), I became familiar( at an early age) with the farming maxim 【同that “there is never a year 【when every crop succeeds】, nor 【when every crop fails】】.” (In recent years) a farming elite and its advisers have started to assume otherwise. They have been convincing themselves 【名that if they prepare their plans (according to the latest scientific knowledge )and put them (efficiently) into practice, success is assured】.

 

若者 lad  少年 juvenile ≒ adolescent (青年期)

be familiar with ~に慣れている・〜に精通している be familiar to ~に知られている ( be used to = be accustomed toだがそれらとはニュアンスが違う)

 

ポイント1

nor は接続詞 neitherは副詞 (プラス等位接続詞は共通部分を省略可能で瞬殺*否定部分除く)

Naturally, I had never met him in my life, (       ). 2006年東京大学

ア nor he me
イ nor did he
ウ neither did I
エ neither had I

 

ポイント2

Otherwiseの3つの意味

  • もしそうでなければ

I left home five minutes earlier; otherwise I would have missed the train.

  • 別のやり方で(違った風に)

Ken could not act otherwise.

  • その他の点では

The rent is a little high, but otherwise the room is good.

 

訳例

自然の世界には,常に埋め合わせがある。田舎の少年として、私は全ての作物がうまくいくこともないし,全てが失敗することもないという農家の格言に早いうちから慣れ親しんだ。近年では、エリート農民や,農業アドバイザーたちは,違ったふうに考え始めている。彼らはもし最新の科学的知識に応じて計画を準備して,効率的にそれらを実行すれば成功は保証されていると信じ込んできている。

ポレポレ例題22 北海道大学 The crucial issue is whether the essence

 

 

The crucial issue is whether the essence of life resides in the heart or in the brain.  Because the body rarely shuts down all its systems at once, and because hospitals have access to the most modern life-preserving machinery, it is entirely possible that the brain, deprived of an adequate supply of oxygen, could die while the patient, often with the help of hospital equipment, remains alive.

 

The crucial issue is 【名whether the essence of life resides( in the heart or in the brain.) 】 【Because the body (rarely) shuts down all its systems (at once)】, and【 because hospitals have access (to the most modern life-preserving machinery)】, it形 is (entirely) possible 【真that the brain, 分(deprived of an adequate supply of oxygen=if the brain is deprived of an adequate supply of oxygen), could die 【while the patient, (often with the help of hospital equipment), remains alive.】】

ポイント1 whetherの判別 副詞節か名詞節かで訳が異なる

【名Whether he is guilty or not】 is unknown.

【副Whether he is guilty or not】, I believe in him.

 

 

ポイント2 カンマ&カンマを無くして文が通れば=挿入 文法的には 「副詞的なもの」か「同格」

U.S. and Japanese diplomats ,挿副 分meeting in Washington, agreed to seek a solution to agricultural trade problems.

Mr. Tanaka, 挿同a famous scientist in Japan, found the fact.

 

ポイント3 ―ryがつくことで〜類という意味になり、不可算名詞になる

例 a machine→ machinery / a jewel→jewelry

 

 

ポイント4 対比の構造を見抜く カンマがない理由

While ①〜する間 ②〜しながら ③一方では(カンマを使う場合が多い)

My sister worked at an office, while I stayed at home yesterday.

 

可能性  It is entirely possible ~ 【that sv while sv】 テキスト1

it is entirely possible ~ 【that sv】,【while sv】  2

 

 

訳例

決定的な問題は、生命の本質が心臓にあるのか、脳にあるのかということだ。人体が全てのシステムを同時に停止することはまれであるし、病院が最も現代的な生命維持装置を利用できるということもあり、脳はもしも十分な酸素の供給を奪われれば死んでしまうが、一方で患者の方は病院の装置の手助けのおかげで生存し続けることは十分ありうる。